Two reflecting aspects of life that have preoccupied the scientific community and laypersons alike is ‘Heredity’ and the second, equally important one, is ‘Environment’. The term ‘Environment’ comes from the French word ‘environ’ meaning ‘surrounding’. What a human being is surrounded by includes bio-factors such as, other human beings, different kinds of visible and non-visible flora and fauna and abiotic factors such as air, water, soil, light etc, etc. It is no doubt that understanding environment is very difficult, as it is a complex whole of many variables, which surround a human being as well as other living organisms. Environment is an interrelationship between biotic and abiotic variables. It has also been suggested that environment as a whole, is an inseparable admixture of physical, chemical, biological, social, cultural and other elements, which are interconnected in infinite ways. The man-made abiotic environment is everything that Mankind has intervened and has modified the abiotic environs. It is also called ‘Built Environment’, meaning an environment made by Man to provide a setting for human activity. These include roads, buildings, parks, farms, dams, bridges, culverts, man-made caves, green spaces, including water bodies, energy/water supply systems, vehicles, etc, etc. The ‘Built Environment’ is a product made of material, spatial and cultural inputs and is a result of human intellect and labour.
Synopsis of the record of CPTED
The first ever crime prevention through environmental design was launched in 1960’s by Elizabeth Wood. She formulated a list of guidelines pertaining to the security concerns faced by the Chicago Housing Authority at the time. She emphasized the need to create a support environment that would enhance surveillance along with changing the attitude and the mindset of the prospective individual exhibiting an inclination towards criminal behavior.
By 1980’s the concept had gained a mixed audience of supporters and admirers who wanted to adapt the concept into residential setting. Post 2000, the concept has been actively included in the various crime prevention strategies for a more sustained effort. It has gained worldwide recognition and acceptance for suitable crime prevention in external environment.
Core Concept and Strategy
The concept majorly relies on the ability of the law enforcement and the environment to defy the norms of criminal behavior by influencing the attitude and decisions of the person and altering it for the benefit of the society. This modification process is carried out before the concerned person commences his/her first act of criminal conspiracy. It is believed that a person’s decision to commit or not commit an act of crime is largely influenced by the environmental cues and stressors that force or instigate the felony. In case, these cues or environmental factors are altered well within time, the person’s decision to commit a crime can be influenced as well along with enhancing his belief in the system. This, in turn, would lead to a massive decline in the punishments and convictions due to modified behavior patterns of the prospective criminal. The theory has also received certain amount of influence from the positive rewards theory by Skinner.
To summarize, the process of alteration, prevention and reward has more positive outcomes as compared to the prevalent policy of detection and apprehension as it does not provide the person an opportunity to correct his response. Also, the theory continuously emphasizes the importance of crime prevention over crime detection and solving. The present polices have strict punishments for the criminals if apprehended. However, over time, several master minds of such conspiracies have built escape routes around the system that prevents them from getting apprehended and mostly, in such cases, an innocent faces the consequences of such actions, de-motivating an honest citizen.
The vital aspects of theory can be further highlighted by the concepts cataloged below….
Surveillance is the process of maintaining a vigilance of the suspected criminal. In case of external factor motivating him for an act of felony, these environmental factors could be altered to gain an acceptance from the person. Also, the perception is eventually changed due to the continued efforts from the authorities to prevent crime prevention, creating a sense of security and faith within the system. Faith at times facilitates moral consciousness in the wrong doers.
Controlling the environment is also important aspect of the environmental design. For example, if the law enforcement authorities suspect a robbery in a particular spot, the points of exit and entrance could be manned or reduced to one for enhanced vigilance. This further de-motivates the criminal from carrying out the desired plan because of the fear instilled in him/her of being caught.br>
Reinforcement triggers the attitude of the to-be victim to maintain safe surrounding. They are encouraged to be more vigilant by reinforcing their boundaries and safety protocols for devising a healthy escape route. Also, greater ties within the society are encouraged to single out a strange or unknown entity who is likely to commit the crime in due time.
Reward works best for most of the people. A reward for reporting likely conspiracies or acts can help the intelligence giver a monetary or other reward. This helps them develop better ties with the law enforcement agencies. Also, a person who is likely to commit a felony can be rewarded by altering his/her environment that would facilitate uninterrupted growth in a positive direction. Personal growth and sense of achievement are the chief motivating factors contributing to the change in attitude of a person.
The sense of ownership further inspires loyalty within a person. If a person is made to believe that s/he has control over her/his environment and the property of state ultimately belongs to her/him, then s/he is less likely to destroy it for personal benefits. This is mainly due to the sense of belongingness that they feel towards their society, environment and nation, at large.
A continuous external support to follow the righteous, even if difficult, path gives the person an in-built faith on the system, organization and self to follow.
To précis, environmental design is the solution to the global criminal activities. A person is not born criminal; instead it is mostly the environment that forces him/her to take the path. If this environment is altered from the route, then the person would have no inclination and motivation to commit a crime or felony.
Green Crime and Globalization
Globalization can be termed as the process of the world uniting as one distinct entity by sharing of ideas, resources, commodities and other important aspects that facilitate the restoration and preservation of the culture. Globalization can be phrased as a healthy development that would remove the boundaries to assist growth and development for a prosperous future of the generations to come. The period of globalization was seen with the transfer of technology pertaining to the automobile sector with the commencement of steam locomotives, engines, steamers and jet engines being shared over the borders to promote healthy ties with each other.
The introduction of internet, media and mobile phones, the progression has shown an auspiciously rapid augmentation. It has also facilitated the growth of fiscal and edifying commotion that contributes immensely to the development of a nation. It has brought people living far away distance wise, closer than ever by establishing better communication and interaction, essential for fruitful coexistence. It has improved trade, transactions and transfer of knowledge to enhance the understanding between the nations to create grounds for mutual respect and operation.
It is important to note that communication and knowledge are not the only two benefits of the globalization process. In fact, it plays a crucial role in helping the nations across the world develop and aspire for a more stable political and capital scenario. The under developed and developing countries of the world have benefitted immeasurably from the globalization of the world. Many stable and developed countries have come forward to aid and assist such countries in the process of stabilization and expansion. Monetary, military and commerce aids are just a few to name. Besides the development and promotion of political and social stability of nation, globalization plays a vital role in the protection of the natural environment by making a collaborative approach towards the natural harmony of the world.
Nature is the most fundamental aspect of any trade and development. With the social awareness about the environment slowly creeping into people’s minds, globalization has become the stable floor for prevention of crimes against nature and greenery. Environment is a broad term that facilitates the provision of several basic needs of all species inhabiting this planet. Food, shelter, air and water literally define the very existence of mankind. But, with the increased crimes against nature in the past few decades, the scenery is slowly depleting into nothingness. Several countries across the world have realized the importance and are slowly making a collaborative approach towards saving and preserving it for making subsistence a possibility in the future.
All existent life species across the world have been facing a major dilemma concerning the slowly and gradual exhaustion of the environment. All these concerns have found an origination through the prevalent human practices and activities leading to drastic changes. Some of these changes are sudden transformation in the climatic conditions across the world, pollution of air, water and soil, over-fishing activities, global warming and extinction of several inhabitant species of plants and animals. But, contrary to the concerns are the demands of the nation needed for a sustained development.
As per a report compiled by BBC, the resources needed to sustain the economic growth of India and China alone, would consume all the natural reserves of the world and still would need more. Due to over consumption of resources, the reserves have been depleting at an alarming rate and would very soon reach an all time low. The abundant population of these nations have caused a raising concerns as there are not sufficient supply of agricultural produce to feed all the mouths in the future hence, leading to episodes of famines. Feeding so many mouths could ultimately lead to a fight to the bottom where the environmental and natural resources would slowly cease to exist. Such drastic anticipations demand radical steps for prevention and protection of the natural environment before it’s too late.
However, some thinkers believe that the reverse to above scenario is also true. A race to the top can also be anticipated for the development of these countries, where they deny and prevent the happenings stated above. A greater environmental awareness to protect the green can save the natural reserves along with helping them replenish to the original state. Positive environmental practices such as cleansing, re-plantation and preservation of natural reserves by using them cautiously can help formulate a solid base for the growth of these economies along with providing enough resources to feed the populace of the nations.
With time, the distances are shrinking across the world because of globalization leading to development. This development is a two edged weapon that can be used to exploit the environment or replenish the lost reserves. It is within the power of the nation to decide the course, and path to the development. It depends upon the intentions pertaining to the willingness to either save or lose their precious belongings.
Globalization has also lead to an enhanced awareness towards the nature and environment along with a greater inclination to convert the inevitable from never happening. Nations across the world have started this journey of nature globalization by launching initiatives such as UN Clean Air Initiative, etc. the exhaustion of natural reserves are being curtailed by instilling the use alternate source of energies to suffice the needs. Some of these alternate sources are the hydro electricity, solar paneling, etc.
Planetary boundaries, that have been violated, have to be recreated to facilitate the growth of lost species. Such methods would not only reduce the cost of living but also help the economies grow by giving the general audience to invest in more sustainable resources and luxuries that would not hamper the life of the future generations.
One of the greatest gifts of globalization is collaborative community policing whose authority prevails all over the world. These community policing individuals could educate the community and help develop a society of individuals who are ware and conscious about their surroundings. The morale fiber is the only ultimate answer to prevention of green crime by globalization.
Wildlife in its basic sense refers to all non-domesticated animal species. But in recent times, this description has come to include all flora, fungi and other organisms which grow or live wild in an area, without being introduced by humans.
Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, all types of forests, plains, steppe grasslands and other areas, including the most developed urban sites have wildlife living in them. It can be asserted that all these aforesaid areas, have some or the other distinct form of Wildlife. While the term in pop culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human intervention and human factors, most scientists agree that unwittingly almost all wildlife is affected by human activities. Human beings have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including, religious, legal, social, cultural and moral sense. Some animals, however, have adapted to suburban environments. These include such animals, as cats, dogs, mice, gerbils and birds. Organised religions have often declared certain animals to be “sacred” and certain animals to be “evil” and “dirty”. In modern times, concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest vehemently, the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. The global wildlife population has decreased by more than 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund. The destruction is continuing unabated.
Scientists believe that prehistoric humans were solely hunters and gatherers and they relied on wildlife and plants for their food. In fact, it is speculated that, some species may have been hunted to extinction by our ancestors. In this day, hunting, fishing and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in major parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport or recreation, with the edible meat as mostly a side benefit of it. Animal food sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat. The increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in Asia is decimating vast populations of sharks, primates, pangolins and other animals, which they believe have medicinal properties.
Crimes Against Wildlife
Wildlife is a major part of the Universe yet human beings take it for granted that they can do anything to these unfortunate creatures and get away with it. While any crime against humanity is taken seriously by the whole world, it has still not woken up to taking crimes against Wildlife seriously. There are massive crimes and untold cruelty towards these living beings.
As we know animal food sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat. This increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional and modern food across the globe is decimating populations of sea life, most of the primates, pangolins and other animals, which they believe have medicinal properties. Infact most of these so called remedies are touted as new age and have fuelled a gold rush.
According to a report, by the organization ‘TRAFFIC’, in Malaysia, in the month of November, 2008, almost 900 “plucked and oven-ready" owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. This incident is just a tip of the iceberg. These animals were believed to be smuggled out of the country and to be sold in boutique wild meat restaurants. Elephants, rhinos and other animals are brutally poached for their ivory, bones and nails. Superstition and mumbo-jumbo medicine play a big part in the destruction of wildlife. In a report published by noted biologist and environmental activist, Sally Kneidel noted that numerous wildlife species were for sale in informal markets along various rivers in different countries especially the Amazonian river. Those animals included marmosets, peccaries, agoutis, turtles, turtle eggs, anacondas, armadillos, snakes, etc, etc. Others in these informal markets included primates and different types of birds. Most of them destined to be caged as pets. Many of these animals were to be slaughtered for their ingredients to be used in medicine sold in local markets and of late in the global markets. The medicinal value of these animal parts and plants is based largely on superstition and propaganda.
Prevention of Crimes Against Wildlife
The crimes against wildlife are akin to crimes against humanity. If this cruelty and genocide continues, neither will the coming generations pardon us nor will the Universe ever forgive us. The immediate need of the hour is a massive military-like operation on a global scale to prevent crimes and the decimation of wildlife. The day is not far when a majority of species will become extinct and beyond redemption. Community police groups in collaboration with forest officials, law enforcement agencies, religious leaders, bureaucrats, law makers and NGOs can make a massive difference in the prevention of crimes against wildlife. The use of products from Wildlife in religion is a very pertinent and a touchy issue. Religious leaders have to be taken into confidence, to systematically remove the use of animals and animal parts and products from religious practices. Massive awareness programmes to bring about the cause of prevention of crimes against animals should be undertaken in all the places of worship. Infact, the protection of the plant and animal kingdom should become a religious obligation of the Society.
The law makers should completely ban the trafficking and sale of wildlife and products. This would give the law enforcement agencies a clear cut mandate to operate with. Even to this day, there is a lot of confusion with regards to the sale, trafficking and possession of animals and animal and plant products. Once the mandate is clear and the laws are stringent, then Community Police patrols along with forest officials, law enforcement agencies, NGOs, civil society members and the whole community can leave no stone unturned to enforce the law. Protection of environment, forests, water bodies and wildlife should be brought on par with protecting our borders from the enemy. The reason is that, this enemy within is more dangerous than the enemy on the other side of the border. Ecology should become a major part of the syllabi in school, colleges and university. Only then will there be a generational change and a change in mindset.
Protection of the forest against vile vested interests, conservation of forests and aforestation would have a tremendous impact on the welfare of wildlife. On the medicinal front, massive awareness programmes should be undertaken to reach people from all walks of life. Everybody should be made aware of bogus claims of these “snake oil doctors”. In this regards, the medical fraternity and genuine herbalists and complimentary healthcare professionals should come forward and lead these awareness programmes. It should be made clear to the general public that such miracle cures actually do not exist and that healing and cure is a slow and gradual process and a multi-dimensional one at that.
Strategies and specific measures to prevent crimes against animals should be envisaged and implemented in toto. Hotspots of where the animals are poached, how the products are smuggled, who are the people involved in the operation and where does it finally end up on the market have to be investigated and action taken upon. For this, governments across the world have to give enough teeth to the law enforcement agencies and the community police. It should also be made clear to the community at large that crimes against wildlife and destruction of forest and ecology will have a detrimental effect on not only the lives of people but also on the economy. Crimes against the environment is indeed a direct threat to humanity.
The leopard, also known as panther pardus is one of the five big cats in the genus Panthera. It is a member of the Felidae family with a wide range, in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia to Siberia
Compared to other members of the Felidae, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large skull. It is similar in appearance to that of a jaguar, but is smaller and more lightly built. Its fur is marked with rosettes similar to those of the jaguar, but the leopard's rosettes are smaller and more densely packed and do not usually have central spots as the jaguars do. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers.
The leopard's success in the wild is due to its well camouflaged fur, its opportunistic hunting behavior, broad diet and strength to move heavy carcass into hiding places and even up trees, its ability to adapt to various habitats ranging from rainforests, steppe grasslands to arid and mountainous areas and run at speeds up to 58 kms an hour. Recent surveys have revealed that it numbers are dismally low and it has now been listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List. The leopards are threatened by habitat loss and pest control. Their habitats are fragmented and they are illegally hunted so that their pelts may be sold in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration. .
The pangolin is a mammal and is also referred to as a scaly anteater or trenggiling. It is of the order Pholidota. The one extant family, Manidae, has three genus, Manis which comprises of four species living in Asia, Phataginus which comprises two species living in Africa, and Smutsia which comprises two species also living in Africa. These species range in size from 30 to 100 cm. A number of extinct Pangolin species are also known. The name Pangolin comes from the Malay word ‘Pengguling’, meaning ‘something that rolls up’.u It is found naturally in tropical regions throughout Africa and Asia.
Pangolins have large, protective keratin scales covering their skin. The pangolin is the only known mammal with this adaptation. They live in hollow trees or burrows, depending on the species. Pangolins are nocturnal animals and their diet consists of mainly ants and termites, which they capture using their long, specially adapted tongues. They tend to be solitary animals, meeting only to mate and produce a litter of one to three offspring which are raised for about two years. Pangolins are threatened by hunting for their meat and armor and heavy deforestation of their natural habitats. They are the most trafficked mammal in the world. All eight pangolin species are listed as threatened on the IUCN red list.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small carnivorans that are native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus and the only species in the genus Suricata: Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.
Six species in family Eupleridae, endemic to the island of Madagascar, are also called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the Herpestidae family, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have, since 2006, been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae.
Herpestidae belong to the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena and civet families.
The word ‘mongoose’ is derived from the Marathi name ‘mungūs’ (मुंगूस) (pronounced as [muŋɡuːs]), perhaps ultimately from a Dravidian source. The form of the English name, since 1698, was altered to its ‘goose’ ending by folk-etymology. It has no etymological connection with the word goose. Historically, it has also been spelled ‘mungoose’. The plural form is mongooses, or rarely, mongeese. The mongoose is preyed upon by humans. Taxidermists also crave for mongoose to try out their skills. Hence, mongoose are poached and till recent times it was fashionable to have a stuffed mongoose in the living rooms of the high and mighty across the world. Mongooses are a common spectacle at roadside shows in Asia. Snake charmers keep mongooses for mock fights with snakes. In Japan till recently mongooses were misguidedly brought in to control the local Habu snake. Mongoose fights with highly venomous snakes in closed quarters were presented as spectator events at parks. These kind of spectacle have come down due to protest by animal rights groups. Mongoose too is being threatened from various quarters and there is an urgent need to save this animal from getting endangered and finally becoming extinct.
Tiger are amongst the largest cat species walking on this earth. These 389Kg animal is one of the most majestic creatures of wild that inhabit the jungles and live amongst the ruler class. They have an unforgettable reddish brown fur with distinct black stripes on them to give them a unique look that camouflages easily in the terrains of the forest. The scientific nomination of the class of breed is Pathera Tigris, which it shares with the other species belonging to the same family such as lions, leopards, jaguars, etc. they are grade A predators who feed on the minor ungulate preys such as deer.
These royal and majestic creatures of the wild have been facing a significant conflict with the humans because of merciless killing and de-forestation. The tigers had once been among the major contenders of the forest in the Asian countries but, having been gradually shifting west due to the lack of natural environment that facilitates their dwelling. One such decedent of the original tiger species is the Royal Bengal Tigers in India with a population of nearly 1900-2300 in India.
The royal Bengal tigers of India are huge species of the wild with light yellow to orange-reddish coat with significantly broad dark stripes. The natural habitat of tigers is limited to the region that can offer a dense cover in isolated pockets of the jungle along with a close proximity to the water source or body as it offers an abundance of preys to feed on. However, tigers, unlike lions do not require a dense forest all the time and can survive in a variety of landscapes such as swampy areas of the Mangroves forests near the Ganges Delta region.
Tigers are one of the most beautiful creations of god that have suffered the wrath of human habilitation and needs for insignificant things. Saving them is a pride for India and Indian, so join the procession for a brighter future that also has them living alongside us!
Tiger-loss of Habitat
Tigers are a majestic breed of big cats that are found in several places across the globe. But due to increasing illicit human activities the population of these beautiful creatures of the forest has suffered a setback. Their numbers are reducing per day as we speak. This is not only due to the relentless hunting strategies followed by humans for the by-products derived from the tigers but also due to the merciless deforestation plans.
The tigers lead a royal life in dense forests across the world and need this environment to survive, reproduce and flourish. However, due to several visible and non-visible reasons the trees, flora and fauna has been destroyed to suit the needs of the residents. These needs are of variable kinds ranging from the need to create space for construction and living to the illicit selling of the forest trees for monitory benefits. However, these benefits are only enjoyed by the human species while the rest of the dwellers of Earth suffer a tragic loss because of these commotions. The worst affected are the tigers as they already had a limited population that has now being exposed to the cruelty of humans due to easy sighting in residential areas. Their nests have been destroyed to create these residential areas leaving theme homeless, unsafe and at the mercy of others.
Action against Forest and Wildlife Crime
Forests are the large patch of land covered in woody or tree plantations that dole out as an abode to all-embracing array of flora, fauna and animal kingdom. Beside, being a home it is also the main source of several raw ingredients of human life and existence. It is known that nearly 75% of global gross domestic productivity and 80% of total plant biomass is alone served by the forests in the world.
As on Present day analysis by United Nations, nearly 30% of Earths total land area is covered in forests. However, this thick cover of dense forests is gradually depleting due to illicit human activities, also affecting the wildlife residing within them or dependent upon them for their basic necessities essential for survival. Forests and wildlife can be called as co-dependent collaborators that require the presence of each other for endurance and affluence. Wildlife, conventionally, is a term attributed to the extensive non-domesticated wild animals, plant kingdom, and trees that remain native to a particular region. They are the dwellers of wild that have been surviving without the influence of mankind but, in recent times have been affected gravely by the illegitimate actions of the same. These activities include killing of wild animals for produce such as skin, tusks, horns, oils etc and the naturally occurring trees and plants for medicinal usage or illegal smuggling. This multi-billion $ business runs on the lives of innocent by depleting their population to almost negligible. Forests and wildlife have long suffered from selfish human needs and motivations until some noble representatives of the society decided to take the responsibility to save them from this wrath in their hands.
The liability of protecting the forests and wildlife from the humans belongs to the forest departments across the world. However, with the increased mafia and smuggling, the forest department is at a back foot. Hence, they require the complete cooperation and support of the community to track and cease any illicit activities threatening the existence of these wild beings.
Role of Community
Community is not just the society in which an individual lives instead, it is the surrounding that helps one grows, prosper and make’s one realize the importance of rights and responsibilities. A community is a large extended family of different individuals who come together to thrive and develop. Also, a community is the most powerful tool within a nation as it consists of the populace that forms a link between the government, law enforcement agencies and other departments with the common man. A criminal too is part of this society and hence, can be put under continuous scanner for the crimes s/he has committed.
The law enforcement agencies cannot deliver law and order without the cooperation of the masses. Hence, the most important role in the prevention and bringing justice to the criminals killing the forests and wildlife is played by the community. A common man is better connected than the biggest diplomats of the nation. Hence, the commencement of change has to come from the community and the people residing in it.
Due to the moral responsibility imposed upon an individual by their consciousness, a person is liable to report any crimes that might be happening in his vicinity. The population today has had the luck to witness beautiful natural world but, if the trend of depletion continues, the future generations to come might not be as fortunate. The community has to join their hands together to protect this gift of nature bestowed upon mankind for the upcoming legions.
Role of Government
The governments, in collaboration with NGO’s and other agencies, have been working tirelessly to protect the heaven of natural beauty. However, the task has to be meticulously planned to match the efforts of the destroyers by implementing new age technology and stricter rules and punishments for the guilty. Killing wildlife is as grave a crime as killing another human being in cold blood and hence, should be punished accordingly.
Wildlife and forests are the responsibility of the mankind to protect, treasure and pass-on to the future. The wildlife and forest crimes have multi a dimension attached to them and hence, requires a similar approach to counter as well. They need to implement new strategies that involve the use of several segments of the society including non-governmental organizations, community and law enforcement agencies. For this process to start, the necessary education has to be imparted to the public along with explaining them the consequences of their actions pertaining to the destruction of the forests and wildlife. Smuggling of wood, animals and plants can only be stopped with a collaborative approach!
Role of Technology
Technology is the answer to all the problems of the modern day. Besides manpower, the technology plays the next vital role in preventing or obstructing crimes against the forests and wildlife. Several new age technological advancements have been implemented across the globe to protect the forests and wildlife. Some of these advancements are cataloged underneath for better understanding…
DNA analysis and mapping
DNA analysis is conducted in two stages. In the first stage the samples from various forests across the world are collected by the concerned officials of trees, shrubs, plants and animals. These samples are preserved for mapping and accountability purposes. In stage two of the process, the DNA sample of the dead or the by-product of the animal such as tusks, oils or horns is gathered to match the area of breeding. This helps locate the exact location of the smugglers in which they are operating. The process, also, helps in preventing the further mutilation of the innocent lives residing in these locations.
Thermal mapping machines are placed or installed at the checkpoints to monitor any suspicious thermal image that may be hidden for smuggling purposes. This helps in nabbing the criminals smuggling animals to distant lands for profit generation.
Patrols and checkpoints
Woods or forest produce cannot be transported from one place to another without a formal permit. All the vehicles travelling on such paths that lead to the forests should be continuously monitored to prevent illicit transfers. Such checkpoints can be equipped with cameras or other tracking devices to record the movements of the suspicious entities.
Endorse Nature, not Exterminate Nature!