Nature


NATURE

THE HEALER

Nature is often referred to as Mother Nature because of its extraordinary qualities to nourish its children, i.e. the species that walk this earth and call it a home. It has the solution to the biggest and smallest of ailments, disorders and survival needs. These survival needs may range from food, water to shelter, name it and it is fulfilled by the nature. Nature, since time immemorial, has been recognized and associated with the miraculous healing abilities that can cure any disease known to man along with keeping a million more at bay that might affect the health of its children.

One such branch of medicine that focuses on the betterment and cures offered by the Mother Nature is the nature cure which is a collaborative section of ayurveda, homeopathy, meditation, yoga and other fields derived from the laps of nature. These fields use derivatives of various plants, animals and other elements of nature to heal the various aspects of health related ailments and diseases. Also, the nature offers several lifestyle problems faced by the humans such as early ageing, hair fall and weight issues. Hence, the nature can be rightfully attributed the title of “Healer” because of its never extinguishing healing and maternal capabilities.


The biotic part of environment is commonly called ‘Nature’. As we know, the natural environment consists of four systems: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. All these four systems are in constant flux and affect human activity and in turn are affected by human activity. The Hydrosphere takes into account all water bodies such as springs, geysers, ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, rivulets, seas and ocean. Hydrosphere acts in a cyclic manner which is denoted as a hydrological cycle or water cycle. Lithosphere are rocks constituting the Earth’s crust. It is a known fact that the Earth is a spherical solid planet which exists in the Solar system and that spins on its axis and revolves round the Sun at a certain distance. Lithosphere contains soil, earth rocks, mountains, hillocks etc, etc.

The lithosphere is mainly divided into three layers: crusts, mantle and core. Core is further divided into two: outer core and inner core. The air that envelopes the Earth is calledAtmosphere. It comprises of a thin layer that contains gases like oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and others. A small but important component is water vapour. The atmosphere is further divided into five concentric layers and can be differentiated on the basis of temperature and its own peculiar characteristic. The layers are: Troposphere (it begins at the surface and extends from around 7 kms at the magnetic poles and 17 km at the Equator depending on the prevailing weather. It is heated by surface energy so the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. The tropopause is the boundary between troposphere and stratosphere,Stratosphere, (it extends from the tropopause to around 50 kms.

The stratopause which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere is around 50 to 55 km. Mesosphere, (it extends from stratopause to 80-85 kms. It is said to be the place where most of the meteorites burn out upon entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.)Thermosphere (top of thermosphere is bottom of exosphere, also known as exobase. Its height varies according to solar activity and is said to range from 350 to 800 kms and exosphere (it is the outermost layer of Earths’ atmosphere extends from exobase in the upward direction and is composed of mainly of hydrogen and helium gases). There are other layers as well. The most important layer that is discussed is the Ozone Layer (It is located in the lower part of the stratosphere from nearly 15 to 35 kms.

The thickness varies according to season and geography. Nearly 90 percent of atmospheric ozone is contained in stratosphere. The Ionosphere is that part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. It stretches from nearly 50 to a 1,000 kms and overlaps exosphere and thermosphere. It forms the inner edge of theMagnetosphere. The Homosphere and Heterosphere include the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Mesosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is almost composed of the lightest element Hydrogen. The Planetary Boundary layer is that part of the Troposphere that is nearest to the Earth’s surface and is directly affected by by turbulent diffusion.

Atmosphere protects the solid Earth and living beings from the harmful effects of the Sun. Biosphere is the life-giving layer as it refers to all the living creatures on the surface of the Earth and their contact with water and air.

To sum up, Nature or natural environment is an inclusion of all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth. It is an environment that takes into account the interaction of all flora and fauna with the climate, weather and all natural resources. Nature can further be distinguished as a complete ecological unit which functions as natural system without human intervention. This includes all vegetation, mircro-organisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that take place within their boundaries. Nature also means natural resources and natural phenomena that lack boundaries such as: air, water, climate, solar radiation, electric and magnetic charge.

The surface of the Earth has water and land. Land comprises of mountains, hills, hillocks, valleys, plateaus etc, etc. Apart from built environment habitats called cities, towns, villages, hamlets, etc the most important piece of land within the natural environment is the Forested area. Water on the surface of the Earth and in the deep bowels of the Earth also is a very important feature of Nature. Water bodies are Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Lakes, Ponds, Streams, Springs, etc.



Water Bodies the Source of Life

Water exists everywhere on Earth. In its liquid form, nearly two thirds of Earth’s surface is covered by water. There is water in the air and even below the surface of the Earth and combined with other elements, it forms the main constituent in all living beings. It is a transparent fluid. Water is a chemical compound and is made up of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. It remains liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but with changes in temperature and pressure water changes its state and can be seen as ice, snow, fog, dew, cloud, gaseous state and water vapour. On the surface of the Earth, water constitutes of Oceans, Seas, Glaciers Rivers, Rivulets, Springs, Geysers, Streams, Lakes, Ponds etc, etc. Water is also found in the bowels of the Earth and it is also found in combination with various other elements. The biggest water bodies are the Oceans. They are defined as a very large expanse of saline water. The main water body areas are given names to denote their geographical divisions. The ocean composes much of the planet’s hydrosphere The ocean covers nearly 72 percent of the Earth’s surface.

The term ‘sea’ is sometimes used interchangeably with ‘ocean’. Sea is body of saline water partly or fully enclosed by land. Oceans are very important to Life, as it forms part of the carbon cycle and influences climate and weather patterns. It is home to nearly 2,30,000 known species. More and more new species are being discovered. Glaciers are defined as a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. It forms when the accumulated snow exceeds its ablation over many centuries. Glaciers slowly form, deform, reform and flow due to the stresses induced by their own weight, creating crevasses, seracs and other features. They also abrade rocks and debris to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form on land and are very distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of water bodies. A river is a naturally free-flowing watercourse usually made of fresh water. It naturally flows towards the sea or another river. In some instances a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course. Small rivers are also referred to as streams, rivulets creeks, brooks and rills. Rivers play a major role in the socio-economic and political movement of Mankind.

A large number of species live in the river and off the river. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water usually gets collected from precipitation through a drainage basin from the surface runoff and other such sources such as recharge from ground water and water springs. Rivers are also formed when water is released from natural ice and snowpacks. A spring is said to be result of Karst topography, where surface water has infiltrated the Earth’s recharge area becoming part of the area groundwater. This groundwater then travels through a network of cracks and fissures, openings from inter-granular spaces to large caves. The water eventually emerges from below the surface in the form of a spring. A geyser is a spring which intermittently discharges water and is usually accompanied by steam. The formation of geysers is due to particular hydro-ecological conditions, which exist in a few places on Earth, usually close to volcanic activity. Lakes are small patches of land filled with water. They can vary in size and are mostly localized in a basin and that which is surrounded by land apart from a river or other water outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Most of the lakes lie on the land and are not part of the ocean and therefore are very distinct from lagoons. Lakes are not flowing water bodies and are much more deeper than ponds, but many lakes are fed or drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in rift zones, mountainous areas and areas with ongoing glaciations. Ponds as contrasted with lakes are man-made and are much smaller and less deep. They too are a standing body of water They are used for agriculture and industrial purposes. In developed countries vast ponds are built to boost up the ecology, for domestic water supply and for recreational and aesthetic purposes. Over a period of time, ponds attract aquatic plants and animals. The type of life in a pond is generally determined by a multitude of factors such as water levels at all times and nutrient levels, presence of shading trees in its surroundings, streams and rivulets, grazing animals and salinity.



Forest

A forest is defined as a large area covered chiefly with trees and undergrowth. A decade ago, nearly 30 percent of the world’s landmass was covered by forests. Forests are the predominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth and are distributed across the earth. Forests account for 75 percent of the gross primary productivity of the biosphere and contain nearly 80 percent of the plant biomass. Forest ecosystems can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth at different altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high or where the environment has been undeniably altered by human endeavor.

Forests at different latitudes form distinct ecozones. Boreal forests near the poles tend to consist of evergreens. As we move away from the poles there are semi-evergreen forests. As a general rule forests dominated angiosperms, that means forests with broadleaf trees are more species-rich than those dominated by bygymnosperms that means forest with montane or needle leaf trees. There are exceptions to this rule too. Forests contain many tree species within a small area like what is found in tropical rain and deciduous forests or relatively few species over large areas such as the taiga or montane coniferous forests. Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.

Forests can be classified in many ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the biome in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species, whether they are evergreen or deciduous. Another differentiation is whether the forests are composed predominantly of broadleaf trees or coniferous needle-leaved trees, or a mixture of both.



Some of the classifications are:

  • Boreal forests are those which occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous.
  • Temperate zones support both broadleaf deciduous forests, for example temperate deciduous forests and evergreen coniferous forests, for example temperate coniferous forests and temperate rain forests. Warm temperate zones support broadleaf evergreen forests, including laurel forests.
  • Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist forests, tropical and subtropical dry forests, and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. Tropical forests near the equator are distinct from the temperate forests near the mid-latitude.
  • Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure or developmental stage, for example, old growth versus secondary growth.
  • Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in different forest types, for example Ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest..
    • Forest plantations, generally intended for the production of timber and pulpwood increase the area of forests worldwide. Commonly mono-specific and/or introduced tree species are not important as habitat for native biodiversity. They can be managed in ways that enhance their biodiversity protection functions and they are important providers of ecosystem services, such as maintaining nutrient capital, protecting watersheds and soil structure as well as storing carbon. They also play an important role in alleviating pressure on natural forests for timber and fuel wood production.

      Forests can also be classified according to the amount of human intervention and alteration. Old-growth forest contains mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. In contrast, secondary forest often contains significant elements of species which were originally from other regions.

      Rainfall and elevation also affect the composition of the forest. Human society and forests and its inhabitants affect each other in both positive and negative ways. Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as recreational attractions. The health of the forest affects the whole society. Uncontrolled human activities, which include encroachment and harvesting of forest resources can negatively affect the forest ecosystems.

      Dangers of Deforestation

      Forests since ages have been the companion of the solitary soul. Poets, mystics, spiritual seekers and lovers alike have sought refuge in forests, to be far away from the madding crowds and the traps of Samsara.

      But yet, these golden swathes of land are slowly disappearing at an alarming rate. Deforestation means the clearance or clearing of forest or a stand of trees where the land thereafter is converted to a non-forest use. We can see forests being converted to farms, ranches and even to industrial and urban use. The phenomenon of deforestation occurs for many diverse reasons wherein trees are cut down to be used as fuel or the land is cleared to be used as pasture or to house communities. The rampant removal of trees without sufficient reforestation will eventually result in damage to the habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity.

      Deforestation occurs for many reasons. Trees are cut down to be used as fuel, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and human settlements. Such activity has adverse impacts on bio-sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of cover for its forces and also vital resources. Modern examples of this were the use of ‘Agent Orange’ by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and the United States of America military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

      Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the glaring factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large and unbridled scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing and prickly issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests. The list of the dangers of deforestation continues to grow even though the human population is too lethargic to take notice of.



      Forest Conservation

      After understanding the dangers of deforestation and the immense possibilities of good life for all the living organisms on planet Earth, the immediate need is to conserve the forest cover that is remaining.

      Forest conservation is the first step towards reclaiming its lost glory. The immediate step is to recognize the boundaries of forest and farm habitats and to cordon them off and declare them protected areas. This is the step to stop the encroachment of forest land by vested interests.

      This can be done by community police in collaboration with forest officials, law enforcement agencies, local governments and NGOs which work with tribals living in forests. Infact, the tribals living in the forests are the true custodians of the forest and they have to be taken into confidence and interactions with them can create a blueprint to conserve the forest wealth that is remaining.

      Once the forest area has been demarked then patches of land vacant within it can be identified to plant trees and nurture them to their fullest growth. Not only planting trees, but a scientific programme to conserve all the natural resources should be undertaken keeping in view its benefits to living organisms and the ecology. In summary forest conservation is to maintain, plan and improve forested areas that have already been demarked as forested and hence protected. In India, the ‘Forest Conservation Act, 1980’ was enacted to help conserve the nation’s forests. It strictly restricts and regulates the de-reservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes without the prior approval of the central government. To this end the Act lays down the pre-requisites for the diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes.



      Afforestation

      The second step after forest conservation is to slowly increase the land coming under forest. That means taking the concept of Afforestation to its true meaning and logical conclusion. As we have seen the Earth has lost nearly half of its forest cover. So the long journey is to restore the forest cover that has been lost. This means more than 30-40 percent of global land has to be scientifically reclaimed and converted into forest. The whole task is daunting and will take a long time and can only be aided by a steady decrease in human population.

      Systematically, acre by acre, the forest cover can be increased by the planting of trees and maintaining them. This is also an opportunity to plant those trees that are becoming extinct and also trees that could yield commercial benefits for Mankind. Judicious and regulated use of forest produce is the only way to get benefits from the forest and to sustain them.



      Climate Change and its impact on Agriculture

      Climate change is definitely happening and global warming is not longer an alarmist’s theory. We can clearly see the disastrous consequences of climate change. As we know climate change is due to the presence of various aerosols in the atmosphere. Due to these aerosols, the Earth is getting warmer. These gases are capable of changing the microphysical and chemical properties of clouds and their life cycles and extent. With the study of ecology becoming important research has clearly shown the effects of climate change and global warming. Nearly half of the glaciers around the world have disappeared and the other half is vanishing at a steady rate. Climate change is causing massive tsunamis, hurricanes, cloudbursts, flash floods, etc. Some years are beating the hundred year records to become the hottest year. The summer season has increased and become intensely hot. There is also change in the air circulation pattern, jet stream, sudden rain, unseasonal rain, melting ice caps, declining ozone layer, etc.

      But the biggest impact of climate change is when it is going to hit us below the belt and take away the morsels from our mouth. Global warming is said to have far reaching and intense consequences on conditions affecting agriculture including temperature, green house gases in the atmosphere, glacial run offs, precipitation and a heady admixture of all these variables. As the climate and weather become unpredictable all models for crop estimation and simulation are becoming a failure. There will be no guarantee of a decent harvest. Cropping patterns will have to be changed. Fresh research will have to take into account climate change, temperature, precipitation, soil analysis, wind speed, etc, etc. Temperature rise will spell doom for many a crops and crops which can withstand higher temperatures will have to be introduced. The dates of sowing and harvesting will be changed. As seasons change and become unpredictable, newer scientific methods of agriculture will have to be adopted. The agriculture community will have to be taught this new science and help counter climate unpredictability. The impact on agriculture will be felt acutely among populations which are marginal and doing subsistence farming. India will be the hardest hit along with some parts in Africa and Asia as it is located in the tropics. Most of the Indian agriculture is unorganized and hence this will be a cause for policies and ideas to help the farmer cope with the changing agriculture scenarios not reaching them. As agriculture will collapse small businesses connected to agriculture will also suffer. Scientists say that rainfall is likely to increase in the eastern part of India while the western states, desertification may increase. As a consequence plants, animals and humans will suffer from hitherto unheard of diseases and many diseases will assume epidemic proportions. The production of agro goods will systematically drop not only in quantity but also quality. The disastrous impact of climate change on agriculture will be at the economic, social, political, psychological and cultural levels. The Indian way of life is just going to be a distant dream.



      Understanding Climate Change Essential

      Even though there are many who theorise and even offer compelling proof that there are many other planets in the Universe, where life can thrive and there are aliens just like us, Mankind still wakes up every day to the notion that our planet Earth is unique. Not only that it is unique, but it has to be preserved and cherished. Climate of the Earth is dynamic and each region’s climate is a result of an admixture of various variables. The most important factor to affect the climate is the flow of energy from the Sun. Heat from the Sun passes through the Earth’s atmosphere and warms its surface. As the heat increases the surface sends back infrared radiation back into the atmosphere.

      Some of this heat is absorbed by various gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and halocarbons. It is carbon dioxide (CO2) which significantly keeps the Earth warm. Photosynthesis has brought the levels of carbon down to 0.03 percent compared to 80 percent around 4 billion years ago. All this carbon dioxide had become locked in organisms, minerals and fossil fuels inside the bowels of the Earth. Natural emissions of carbon dioxide through decaying plants, animals, respiration of living organisms are kept in balance through photosynthesis, where it is removed and gets distilled in water. This is the natural carbon dioxide cycle. Thus, to facilitate life on the Earth and to keep the climate constant, the atmosphere is filled with greenhouse gases.

      These various gases act like a cover keeping the earth warm and protecting it from a cold situation. This effect is commonly known as the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide which though, not the most potent of the greenhouse gases drives the greenhouse effect on the planet. When fossil fuels and minerals such as petroleum, diesel, natural gas, coal, etc are burnt in massive quantities they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Because of this burning, the layer of the greenhouse gases is getting wider and thicker, thus making the Earth a warmer place. This means climate change is occurring at a rapid pace and the globe is becoming hot. The Earth is a very special planet and it orbits close to the Sun and receives a lot of solar energy. It is also at a safe distance so as not to get burnt by the Sun. The Earth is unique and the only place Mankind has to live. Hence the biggest challenge to Mankind are pollutants in the air and its symptom ‘Global Warming’.



      Sensing Global Warming Need of the Hour

      Mankind in its rush to usher in progress and advancements, is going about burning fossil fuels at an alarming rate. This has not only created a thick layer of pollutants, but has increased the layer of greenhouse gases. Global warming or the greenhouse effect is now a dark reality staring right at us. But the destruction of the planet has been a gradual process. The globe has been warming at a steady pace heating oceans, ice caps, rivers mountains and land. But in recent years, the alarming rise in atmospheric temperature has been clearly noticed and felt. The Earth has become warmer by around 1 degree celsius. After a few decades the Earth could become warmer by another degree. Though the change appears miniscule, the ramifications across the globe are devastating. The causes for global warming are natural and manmade. While natural causes are negligible and easily overcome by nature, manmade global warming is huge and nature is unable to rectify and usher in harmony. Greenhouse gases in the past hundred years have increased due to rapid industrialization and population explosion. Industry is trying to fulfill each and every need of Man.

      The result is that industrial processes have increased manifold. The pollutants that are being released are carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, chloroflurocarbons, chlorine and bromine compounds, etc. The ozone layer too is being depleted and this is causing the bombardment of the earth with ultraviolet rays of the Sun. The ozone layer is getting depleted by the increased release into the atmosphere of chlorofluorocarbon gases. These gases are used in many industries as aerosol propellants, in cleaning liquids used in industry and as a coolant in refrigerators. The ozone layer is the thickest around Antartica and the Artic Circle. These aerosols created by burning, along with dust, soot, grim, organic particles get dispersed into the atmosphere creating a polluted environment.

      By its own carbon dioxide is harmless and we even find it in many beverages as it adds a lot of sparkle. But when excess amount of the gas is released into the atmosphere the damage can be massive. The biggest fossil fuel polluter that causes global warming is coal and biggest industry that uses coal is the electricity generating industry: the power sector. It is said that across the globe, nearly 40 percent of the electricity produced, is by burning coal. The real cost of producing such electricity by burning coal is mind boggling. The power sector contributes to nearly 40 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions. The figures that the International Energy Agency state are that more than 23 bn tonnes of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere, which hovers around a whopping 700 to a 1,000 tonnes every second.



      NATURE CURE

      Naturopathy

      Naturopathy can be defined as an alternative form of medicine that employs the nature to heal. It is extensive assortment of treatments utilizing various aspects of environment gifted to us by the Mother Nature including vegan or herbal diet regimes, acupuncture and pressure, homeopathy and ayurveda, herbalism and yoga. The branch of naturopathy has for long evaded the path to surgery, allopath and drugs by concentrating on the innumerous benefits offered by the nature.

      The basic belief behind the establishment of naturopathy, as an alternate branch of medicine, is the ability of the body to self heals without the use of chemicals and making effective use of naturally occurring ingredients. The term naturopathy has been derived by co-joining of the word “Natura”, meaning Birth, and “Pathos”, meaning natural healing, signifying its concept and practices effectively. The first ever concept of naturopathy dates back to times of Hippocrates, however, the name was coined by John Scheel in 1895. There are several schools across the globe teaching naturopathy to the aspirants and benefiting millions of people suffering from health hazards.



      Core Concept

      The core concept behind derivation of the alternative therapy of medicine called naturopathy is that nature has given each organism the ability to fight disease or expel the toxins from the body by using the nature. It is firmly believed in naturopathy that most illnesses can be cured by altering ones diet and lifestyle without overloading the body with surgeries and allopathic drugs. Also, the naturopaths discourage the concept of antibiotics and vaccination, due to the earlier established concept of naturopathy.



      Categories of Naturopathy

      Most naturopaths like to refer themselves as primary care givers and may prescribe medication or minor surgeries in case of dire necessity. There are several branches of naturopathy focusing on a wide spread array of diseases and ailments. Out of the ocean of naturopathy therapies, the most accepted ones are cataloged below….



      • · Herbalism
        Herbalism comes from the term herbology signifying the use of plants for medicinal purposes. Plants have been used for their medical benefits for time immemorial and have benefitted the masses beyond dispute.
      • Homeopathy
        Established 1976, homeopathy preparations are fondly called as remedies, derived from animals, plants, minerals and synthetic solutions.
      • Color therapy
        Color therapy or chromatherapy is a vibrant field of naturopathy that uses colors to treat patients by balancing their energies.
      • Hair Analysis
        Hair analysis, one of the most popular naturopathy therapies on present day, believes in treatment after a chemical analysis of the hair sample provided by the patient.
      • Acupuncture
        Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese practice that uses needles inserted at various acupressure points in the body to relieve a person from his ailment.
      • Massage Therapy
        Massage therapy is a cosmetic favorite among the masses and uses massage as a medium to cure by applying apt pressure on sensitive areas and other mediums to remove, release and cure tensions within the body.
      • Psychotherapy
        Traditionally, psychotherapy is also a part of naturopathy however; presently it is known to be an integral part of the modern psychiatric treatment and analysis process. Psychotherapy uses several treatments such as stress management, relaxation and hypnosis to cure a person suffering from an ailment.

      Orthopathy

      Orthopathy is an alternate branch of medicine emphasizing the benefits of natural hygiene. The term Orthopathy has been derived from the combination of two Greek words namely, Ortho meaning right and Pathos meaning Suffering. The alternate medicine of Orthopathy originated from the Nature cure movement and accentuates the use of dieting, fasting and drastic lifestyle changes to attain the prefect state of health by curing ailments. Natural hygiene or Orthopathy believes in using dietary measures to treat most of the ailments except surgeries in few selective cases such as broken bones. However, it can be rightfully said that the deep roots of Orthopathy link it to the practice of Naturopathy that has been prevalent in the world since time immemorial.

      Orthopathy was founded in 1820’s by Isaac Jennings, who believed that most ailments are generated to the unhygienic body polluted by the various virus and other pollutants from the nature and food. However, the term Natural Hygiene was coined in 1939 by Shelton, who wrote a detailed description of various methods and techniques used in Orthopathy.

      Orthopathy followers believe that the ailments are a resultant of the incompatible and harmful foods that one consumes during the course of their life. The harmful effects of these incompatible foods can be only countered by consuming compatible foods that contain minerals, vitamins and water. The concept of Orthopathy as a medical intervention has however faced several contradictions over the years as prolonged fasting could damage the various body processes and parts.

      Another popular belief followed by the Orthopathy is that all diseases are a curative process and follows a pattern to cleanse the body, barring a few exceptions that spell danger. They believe the processes such as inflammation is the body’s way of curing the underlying ailment however, if this inflammation is located at the wrong spot such as heart, lung, kidney or brain, it may kill the person. But, it is merely a case of inflammation situated at the spot that is sensitive and may not be able to take the pressure exerted by the body during its endeavor to cure itself naturally by healing. The final concept of Orthopathy is based on 16 physiological principles of life for a human being. A few of these laws are stated below…



      • Every living organism is bestowed with the gift of self-preservation.
      • Every organism has self constructing abilities engraved deep into its cell.
      • Every action, diseases, has an equal and opposite reaction, such as inflammation.

      Application of Nature cure

      Nature is the creator of every being on this earth. It has bestowed upon each individual the power to heal themselves from minor ailments. However, in case larger worries and ailments, a person can turn towards the nature to extract medicines that do not form a part of mainstream medicine. The concept of nature cure was laid down in Germany by Vincent Priessnitz in the year 1822 by formulating a water cure. The cure facilitated drugless curing of several diseases. This practice was later known as naturopathy in the modern world.

      The applications of naturopathy are ample some of which are cataloged below for reference…

      1. Fasting and dieting

      Fasting is the natural cure for almost all ailments since most of them are caused due to accumulation of harmful toxins inside the body consumed by taking incompatible foods. The fasting and dieting allows the follower to rid his body of toxins by flushing them out by the intake of light foods, mineral, vitamins and water.

      2. Enema

      Enema is the process of injecting fluids inside the body through rectum to allow the intestines to clean themselves completely. This is a widely accepted procedure in medicinal world and is often used on patients suffering from constipation and pregnant women.

      3. Curative Baths

      Water has the ability to heal all ailments of the body within no time. Curative or therapeutic baths focus on this aspect of the magic potion, water, to cleanse the body of dirt and regulate the functions efficiently. Also, it has known to boost circulation within the body along with improve muscle tone and digestion.

      4. Cold Compress

      Cold compress or cold packs are effectively used by every sports man to reduce swelling, bruising and pain. The most effective application areas of cold compress is for external injuries on the head, shoulders, arms, legs, chest, abdomen, back and neck.

      5. Heating Compress

      A hot compress or hot pack is also an effective mode to relax tensed muscles and relieving them of the pain. The hot compress is best suited for internal malfunctions, pain and swellings such as tonsillitis, sinusitis, chest pain, abdominal pain, etc.

      6. Hip Baths: Cold, Neutral, Hot and Alternate Hip Baths

      As the name suggests, the hip bath is the therapeutic process undertaken to relax the muscles below the abdomen or navel. In the process the person dips him/herself below waist in a specially designed container containing water. The traditional hip bath is of four kinds namely, cold (100-180C), Warm (400-450C), Neutral (320-360C) and Alternating (100-180C to 400-450C).



      Remedies and Benefits of Nature Cure

      The nature cure aims to achieve the state of perfect bodily functions by returning the body to its former glory by using natural methods. Such methods concentrate on removing the harmful toxins from the body to normalize all the abnormal functions by the process of purification. The process of curing, starts by the diet moderation, regulation and fasting. The body is polluted by the harmful toxins that one intakes by consuming dangerous and incompatible foods. The body remains healthy as long a state of equilibrium is maintained in it. However, by the unhealthy habits and lifestyle followed by people, this state of equilibrium is disrupted forever. Hence, diet regulations are implemented to restore this equilibrium and rid the body of toxic wastes residing inside it.

      There are several simple rules followed by nature cure to restore the body such as…

      Rule 1. Avoid eating when you are sick. Instead try and consume light foods that would help flush out the toxin causing the ailment.

      Rule 2. Fasting is the one step remedy for almost all human ailments.

      Rule 3. Water is essential for swill out purposes, especially warm water that is also known for its relaxation outcome.

      Rule 4. The application of cold water on several body parts such as abdomen, sexual organs etc, helps fight ailments and increases their efficiency.

      There are several benefits of the nature cure that have been highlighted over its usage in the past few decades. Some of the most astonishing effects of nature care are enlisted below…

      1. The fasting helps in flushing out the harmful toxins from the body and helping it return to its former healthier self.

      2. The use of cold water increases the efficiency of certain organs of the body such as abdominal functions and sexual outcomes.

      3. The use of warm water relaxes the body along with regulating several bodily functions such as digestion.

      4. A light or fruit diet enables the body to release all the accumulated toxins harming the body from within.

      5. The appropriate diet enables the body to decompose old dying cells and regeneration of new ones to replace them.

      6. Fasting helps in increases the production of amino acids by the cells of the body and utilization of excessive fats accumulated on the parts of the body.

      The above mentioned are just a few of the astounding methods and benefits that one can reap by applying nature cure. However, it is always advisable to consult a trained practitioner of the art before implementing its methods on one self.



      Fit Through Nature Cure

      Nature inspires fitness amongst all its organisms including human beings. The various aspects of nature cure such as meditation, yoga, exercise and massage focuses on toning the body using natural remedies without any harmful side effects. There are several legends who have emphasized on the positive aspects of the nature cure to remain fit and healthy. Some of the legends who have used naturopathy to relive young all their lives are Mahatma Gandhi, Anna Hazare and Ramdev.

      The process of naturopathy discourages the use of harmful medication as they believe that all medications have some registered while many other unregistered side effects. They believe in curing through nature by making necessary alterations to diet, exercising for physical fitness, meditation for mental functions, and yoga for physical agility.

      Fitness is state of complete health that is achieved by a joint collaboration of mental, physical and emotional stability. The dietary regulation of naturopathy include the consumption of fruits, soya milks, coconut water, etc to maintain dietary sugar levels in the body along with providing the needed minerals and vitamins to cure the body of preceding ailments and toxins. The extensive exercise regimes and yoga enables the carcass to lose unwanted fats and regulate the functions such as digestion. Lastly, meditation and relaxation therapies enable the mind to release all unwanted stress that not only slows the cerebral functioning but also depletes various corporal functions as well.

      Hence, it can be rightfully exclaimed that naturopathy is the answer to maximum health ailments that are caused due to detrimental dietetic and lifestyle inclinations.



      Corporate Crime against Nature

      Corporate is a name ascribed to a corporation, which is a group of people or company that functions as a single entity in the market for profits. It is a legally recognized unit associated with certain commodity that they deliver to the souk. Most user commodities, the corporate produce, require a certain investment of resources and raw materials. The majority of these ingredients come from the nature, in turn, taxing the nature unduly to satisfy the needs of the market. This often amounts to a massive destruction and exploitation of the available innate assets of the nature amounting to their extinction or their inclusion to the endangered list.

      The petrochemical industry is one of the biggest shareholders in the corporate world amounting to multi billion dollars. These industries extract oil from the depths of the earth, land and ocean, to meet the growing demands of the world. But, in the process, they damage the natural habitat beyond expression. Uprooting of forests and destruction of marine habitation often leads to a damage of the locale, making it unfit for survival of any species that dwelled in the region. Behind the mask of nature care, lies the corrupted world of selfish motives that would stop at nothing to earn an extra billion.

      Closely following the petrochemical or fossil fuel industries are the cosmetic and medicine industries, and their black book of crimes against nature. Most cosmetic and medicine firms in the world have been associated with animal testing for ages. Innocent animals are tested upon to check the validity and reliability of their products before they are launched in the market with a certificate to denote their safety for human consumption. Also, medicinal extracts from plants and animals are gained and exploited at the cost of their extinction. Several unusual varieties of plants and trees are uprooted inhumanly for the use in medicines and cosmetics. This has lead to the increased number of names in the endangered wildlife list. Yet, without remorse more and more amount of wildlife is being targeted by these multi-billion dollar companies for personal profits and selfish motives of testing and experimentation.

      Besides, the legal corporate businesses, the illicit world of smuggling, poaching and mafias have gained momentum. They, too, belong to the multi-billion dollar club and exploit the nature and its children for egotistical motives resulting in their destruction on a large scale. The specific distinguished variety of trees and plants are deracinated to meet the increased consumer demand of the industry without being replaced by the same for replenishment purposes. In the end, it all comes to the increasing demand of the industry in all sectors, or in other words, the demands of the consumers like us. The wastage of resources lead to higher demand amounting to increased crime against nature.

      The plants and factories for the produce of the manufactured goods are meant to be established in the wilderness to minimize the damage caused by their harmful emissions. However, establishing such large units demand destruction of forests and plant life from a large patch of ground that would forever remain unfit for survival in the years to come. The surrounding areas of land and water also get polluted with the emissions of the industry, making them unfit for habitation and survival. The nature, time and again, has been paying heavily from its kitty for the crimes committed by the corporate. The gradual depletion of nature has lead to the extinction of certain unique variety of flora, fauna and animals, localized to the particular region such as the small chameleons. They may be a trivial variety of animals but, they too had the right to survive besides us on this land!

      This callous, cold-blooded obliteration of nature has to some-day stop! But, won’t it be better if it ended just in time to leave the nature intact for the future mankind to witness and enjoy. Several NGO’s in collaboration with the governments across the globe are joining hands to curb this demolition. But, the clutch is far too great for only certain entities to fight alone. Hence, a joint effort was re-launched when the communities were asked for assistance and pitch in for the sake of the nature. More and more people are joining in to create a mutiny that would prevent further annihilation of the Mother Nature.

      This approach of collaboration, consisting of the community members and the law enforcement agencies is called community policing. The principle behind community policing is to give the role of a vigilante to the members of the society to keep watchfulness against the activities of the corporate agencies causing destruction of nature. As on date, this has been the most successful model of preventing crimes against nature that has created awareness by the means of campaigns to a level where the populace are taking a conscientious decision to be a part of it to save the nature.

      However, this is not the only solution as it would fall ineffective after some time unless combined with more extreme steps. One such extreme step is to implement severe punishments for the crimes against nature to discourage the corporate industry by the use of fear. The corporate industries have several laws pertaining to the crimes against nature. However, they are often not implemented by the use of manipulation by the hot-shots of the industry. Bribery and corruption of the protectors and criminals have lead to a stage where people openly offer solutions that would meet their selfish motives and lead to a path that is causing continuous destruction of the wildlife.

      To conclude, an earth without its natural abundance is unimaginable. Also, the importance of the corporate world cannot be denied for the growth and development of a nation. However, the crucial task on hand is let the two survive side by without causing damage to any one particular entity. This demands conscientious approach towards the nature that has to be fabricated in the very core of the society. Even a law cannot be implemented unless the populace believes in its importance and goal!



      Stop Crime against Endangered Wildlife

      Loaded with assets of natural beauty, earth was designed with ultimate grace and intricacy!

      When earth was created all creatures, big and small were given an equal right to live in peace and share the bounties offered as gift. But, as the human population grew, they started dominating the other living beings of the earth. This ultimately led to exploitation of resources, in turn leading to extinction for some unfortunate ones as well. However, many survived but have been pushed towards a similar fate of nearing extermination. These beautiful beings, plants or animals that have come dangerously close to the annihilation list are known as the endangered wildlife.

      Endangered wildlife has been struggling in a warzone for survival in this harsh world for centuries now, alone. However, with the awareness slowly creeping into people’s minds and heart the struggle has touched their lives as well. Now, they stand united in this fight to save the endangered species by protecting the lovely endangered animals and plants from becoming extinct, a talk of the history! This endangered wildlife has been misused to satisfy ulterior motives of mankind such skin and hide, medicinal produce, tusks (of elephants), horns (of Rhinoceros), etc. the innocent wildlife bears the brunt of selfish never ending human needs! Not only are they killed and mutilated for meager profits but also illegally imported and exported across the borders for sale or lab tests.

      The wildlife activists and social workers have started several campaigns to enlighten people against the crime suffered by the wildlife. Gradually the trend is altering as many people across the world are making a conscious effort to save the wildlife. However, the effort is much less as compared to the amount of dangers faced by the endangered species across the world from the illegal dangerous mafia groups that have been rolling in money stained with the blood of the innocent animals. It is an organized sector of crime that has been operating under shadows for centuries now reducing the population of the endangered species to a countable few. It is believed that the poaching and illegal smuggling of wildlife has seen over 7,700% growths in last couple of years. This number includes the rhinos, elephants, tigers, Shantoosh antelopes, small chameleons, ornamental frogs, sharks, etc, to name a few. This network of criminals is growing more and more intense each day by incorporating new age high-tech weapons and instruments to track, kill or uproot the precious wildlife. Hence, the machinery and equipment used for the protection, detection and saving of wildlife has to be equally state-of-the-art.

      Many NGO and governmental officials are coming together to fight this effectively. Besides the collaborative efforts, the governments across the world are offering handsome rewards for people reporting a crime against an endangered wildlife organism to combat the trafficking and poaching mafia and bring justice to the silent victims who are incapable of fighting for themselves. One such collaborative effort was seen budding in the United States of America, when the National Geographic partnered with various instrumental agencies of the state and launched several campaigns to enlighten people and urge them to protect the naive.

      But, all such efforts are futile without the complete support of the community or the populace as mostly they form brigade of mute spectators who let these crimes happen without raising a voice. Community is a powerful tool against all evils of the society as they have the eyes, ears and force located at every nook and corner of the world. Extremely organized efforts have been made to develop a special limb of law enforcement agencies called as the community policing comprising of self righteous and conscientious citizens and honorable police officials to achieve the perfect state of law and order within the society.

      A crime can only be countered by developing a conscience within the people by explaining the consequence of their actions and how heavily it costs these endangered wildlife organisms. They, too, have the right to survive and thrive away from the fear created by the selected few human beings.

      Besides educating the masses about the consequence, it is essential to monitor the forests and wildlife reserves for a sudden drop in the population of the endangered species of plants, trees and animals. Mostly, these activities are extremely secreted and concealed to prevent the break of intelligence to the police but, the localities of the region have sources to track such a transaction. It is then the moral responsibility of these individuals to report the matter to the desired officials to prevent any form of mishaps or crimes against the innocent species residing in the dense woodlands. These species are well accounted for by the forest department officials however, they too get delayed information about an episode. At this moment, it can be rightfully said that it becomes too late to save the organism or plant or tree.

      Every honest citizen has to realize that it is their duty to save and protect the mother land and its gifts bestowed upon them. Besides the above mentioned roles, it is extremely vital to stricter the laws pertaining to such hideous crimes on innocent voiceless species. A person caught with a correlation to such a crime should be punished equivalent to the gravidity of his/her crime to discontinue and discourage the motivation of the crime arisen by the riches for the poor people with the lack of know-how’s about the consequences.

      Promising technology, also, has played a vital role in reducing these crimes against the endangered species. Several technologically advanced equipments such as DNA analysis bar-coding, Acoustic Traps, Thermal Imaging, Mapping and analytics. These advanced machineries help in mapping the animals by using their thermal energy or DNA samples in the forests. However, the more specified use of these equipments has been made for prevention of illegal transportation of the animals across the borders for selling. The DNA Bar-coding has proven beneficial in mapping the native land of the animal collected from the samples from the region and the dead produce such as tusks, bones or hide. Although, it may not be able to save the animal that has already been killed but their samples can help locate the region engulfed by the criminal poachers and mafias.

      To conclude the discussion above, the riches may last for today and tomorrow, but they may not be enough to pleasure the future generations to come. However, a land abundant of natural beauty may the most consequential and striking gift for them.



      ROLE OF COMMUNITY POLICING IN PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND WILDLIFE, WATER BODIES

      Man is a social animal and hence lives in groups. No man is an island, hence the role of the community in the welfare of an individual and as an extension, his family, clan, neighbourhood is of paramount importance. Community policing by definition means a system of allocating officers of the law to particular areas so that they become familiar with local inhabitants. They not only become familiar with local inhabitants but also help train and organize them into a vibrant and effective law enforcement group. Such a system will help the society to combat evils. It is a policy of governance that requires the police to inherit a proactive and preventive approach to address safety and law enforcement concerns. In western countries such a policy/system has been in vogue for the past 150 years. Community policing has had a positive response in all the areas that it has worked. Law enforcement officials and community members both attest to the fact that it has been successful in bringing down crime and raising the bar with regards to a sense of community, duty and security. Community policing as a philosophy, policy and system can play a long role in protecting our environment, forests, wildlife, water bodies which indeed are our legacy and our eternal treasures; which we as a responsible Society have to treasure and protect.

      The role of community policing with regards to safeguarding our environment, forests, water bodies, wildlife etc is still unexplored and has tremendous potential. Citizen participation in public safety and environmental decision making can definitely serve positive functions. Citizen groups can participate in public debates on topics regarding their immediate environment and larger issues. Citizen participation in scouting the area and protecting it, can overcome the shortcomings in the traditional centralized environmental regulatory apparatuses. Community police watch groups can be created to check the sale and trafficking of wildlife products: like ivory, skins, nails, animals, birds, etc. Cleanliness drives with the help of community policepersons can definitely be a sure success. Encroachment of forest land, irregularities in urban and rural spaces can be investigated and brought to the notice of the authorities for immediate action. The common elements in community-oriented policing towards environment, forests, water bodies, wildlife, etc include a total stress on community-based crime prevention by utilizing citizen education, neighbourhood watch and many other systems and techniques as against relying solely on governmental law enforcement agencies. Prevention should be the key and not only should emergency response be fast, but a focus should be on patrolling, monitoring, intelligence gathering and anticipation of crime. There should be increased accountability by the community police groups to the citizens they are designated to serve. The community police group should be allowed more discretionary powers and encouraged to take more initiatives and be proactive.